A) Anaplasma platys nested PCR products of 30 blood samples from dogs in Chile. Positive samples from dogs 7, 12, 17, 19, 23, and 25 are indicated by a. This epidemiological survey of Anaplasma platys was carried out in rural and urban areas of three distinct regions of the State of Minas Gerais. Anaplasma platys is a Gram-negative bacterium that belongs to the rickettsial family Anaplasmataceae. In dogs, A platys multiplies inside platelet vacuoles and .
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Anaplasma platys is an obligate intracellular rickettsial pathogen that infects platelets of dogs, forming basophilic intracellular morulae. In the present report, cellular inclusions were documented in bone marrow thrombocyte precursors patys two young naturally infected dogs, indicating that A. Due to the presence of unique bone marrow examination abnormalities, two 3-month-old, mixed-breed female case 1 and male case 2 dogs were selected from dogs described in previous studies involving canine vector-borne diseases CVBDs 12.
Both dogs originated from a kennel located in Putignano Bari, Apulia, Italy. At the initial evaluation, each dog had a massive Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato tick infestation and no previous acaricidal treatment.
Hematological findings for dog annaplasma included normocytic normochromic nonregenerative anemia red blood cell [RBC] count of 4. Cytological abnormalities on Giemsa-stained blood smears from both dogs included anisocytosis, hypochromasia, and reduced platelet numbers, containing intraplatelet inclusions indicative of Anaplasma platys Fig. At low magnification, megakaryocytic hyperplasia and dysplasia characterized by nuclei disorganization were evident. In particular, 1 to 3 densely basophilic inclusions, similar to those noted in blood platelets, were observed in promegakaryocytes Fig.
The organisms were morphologically identical to A. PCR confirmation of A. Thrombocytes containing Anaplasma platys inclusions black arrows. Promegakaryocytes with Anaplasma platys inclusions in a developing platelet black arrow and a platelet without inclusions white arrow. Anaplasma platysthe causative agent of the infectious canine cyclic thrombocytopenia ICCTinfects platelets of dogs, forming basophilic intracellular morulae 34.
Anaplasma platys in Bone Marrow Megakaryocytes of Young Dogs
Recent publications report A. This rickettsial pathogen has a wide geographic distribution, including in the Americas, Africa, Asia, naaplasma Middle East, southern Europe, and Australia 678and is believed to be transmitted by ticks, as A. In the canine host, A. Dogs infected with different A. To the best of our knowledge, A. Dense basophilic inclusions were observed in bone marrow platelet precursors of both dogs. Some inclusions were surrounded by a playts membrane, pllatys others seemed to be in the cytoplasm of the platelet precursors without a membrane Fig.
The megakaryocytic organisms appeared morphologically identical to A. The findings herein reported indicate that A. Therefore, the cellular invasion mechanisms of megakaryocytic precursors with transfer to proplatelets need to be more thoroughly elucidated.
Indeed, a similar phenomenon was described with Anaplasma phagocytophilum experimental infection of a human megakaryocytic cell culture line, where platelet progenitors became infected by this pathogen, which is closely related to A.
Evaluation of blood samples identified a reduced platelet count and a medium to high A. The cytological findings in the bone marrow of both dogs were consistent with the hematological abnormalities concurrently found in the blood.
Anaplasma platys infection induces platelet phagocytosis as a consequence of direct injury or immune-mediated destruction 3 ; moreover, the increase in circulating monocytes of dog 1 and bone marrow monocyte and macrophage hyperplasia and platelet phagocytosis observed in both dogs may be related to an overwhelming A. Thrombocytopenia in both animals was classified as regenerative on the basis of an appropriate bone marrow response, as observed by cytology.
Both dogs had severe megakaryocytic hyperplasia; the mean numbers of megakaryocytes and promegakaryocytes were significantly increased, as reported for experimental A. Dysplasia was also evident and characterized by cytoplasm fragmentation and nuclear abnormalities, including hyperlobulation and disorganized nuclei.
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Megakaryocytic emperipolesis, the movement of blood cells erythrocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes within megakaryocytes 23was observed in the bone marrow of both dogs. However, to the author’s knowledge, this phenomenon has not been previously described in dogs naturally infected by A. In conclusion, the findings herein reported indicate that A. Further studies are required to establish if the young age of the animals could represent a predisposing factor for platelet precursor infection.
Published ahead of print 12 March National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List J Clin Microbiol v. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Address correspondence to Donato de Caprariis, ti.
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This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Anaplasma platys is an obligate intracellular rickettsial pathogen that infects platelets of dogs, forming basophilic intracellular morulae.
Open in a separate window. Footnotes Published ahead of print 12 March Cyclic thrombocytopenia induced by a Rickettsia-like agent in dogs. Ehrlichia platys Anaplasma platys in dogs from Maracaibo, Venezuela: Molecular detection and identification of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species plztys ixodid ticks.
Vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Costa Rica: First evidence of Anaplasma platys in Rhipicephalus sanguineus Acari: Ixodida collected from dogs in Africa.
The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille, Acari: Platelet aggregation studies in dogs with acute Ehrlichia platys infection. Acute Ehrlichia platys infection in the dog. Canine infectious cyclic thrombocytopenia Ehrlichia platys infection in dogsanapalsma — In Woldehiwet Z, Ristic M, editors.
Clinical manifestations of infectious canine cyclic thrombocytopenia. Ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in dogs and cats. Anaplasma phagocytophilum infects cells of the megakaryocytic lineage through sialylated ligands but fails to alter platelet production.
Ehrlichia canis infectionp — In Greene CE, editor. First case of Anaplasma platys infection in a dog from Croatia. Clinical and hematologic findings in canine ehrlichiosis.
Emperipolesis—a peculiar feature of megakaryocytes as evaluated in chronic myeloproliferative diseases by morphometry and ultrastructure.