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Publication of a “perspective” article in Science, on April 15, by P. Security proofs of this protocol against general individual and collective cryptgraphie attacks have been provided [ 7 ], [ 10 ]—[ 12 ], and have been recently completed by unconditional security proofs against the cryyptographie general type of attacks [ 13 ]. In the next step towards applications, we realized a portable CVQKD prototype that provides stable and automatic distribution of secret keys over several days at high rates see Figure 2.
It was first implemented in a proof-of-principle table-top experiment see Figure cryptographue at near-infrared wavelength nmbased on a pulsed, shot-noise-limited homodyne detector [ 7 ].
The average secret key distribution rate provided by the CVQKD prototype over 3 days and through a 3 dB channel corresponding to rcyptographie 15 km standard optical fibre was 8 kbit s—1, including all quantum and classical communication. The majority of the QKD systems that have been realized implement discrete-variable or distributed-phase-reference protocols [ 1 ], which use properties of single photons to encode key information. From a practical point of view, the coherent-state CVQKD protocol requires a simple system architecture and eliminates the need for specific resources such as single-photon sources and detectors.
The security of this protocol stems from Heisenberg inequalities satisfied by the quantum CVs accessible to Alice, Bob and the eavesdropper Eve. Aller au contenu Aller au menu Aller au pied de page. These states are sent along with a phase reference through the quantum channel to Bob, who quxntique measures one of the two quadratures using a homodyne detection courss. Experimental quantum key distribution QKD has been the subject of intense research efforts during the last decade; these efforts have led to an impressive progress, which has allowed QKD to become the field in quantum information processing that is the closest to applications.
Continuous-variable CV QKD protocols, in which light carries continuous information such as the value quantiwue the quadrature of a coherent state, have been proposed as another option, which opens the door to very high secret key generation rates [ 2 ]—[ 9 ].
To reach this goal, several experimental advancements were required, such as the time and polarization multiplexing of the signal and phase reference in the quantum channel, as well as the implementation of automation and hardware control procedures, combined with advanced reconciliation and key verification techniques.
In parallel with these experimental developments, theoretical work is going on to increase the range and efficiency of the CVQKD protocol . Subsequently, the system went through successive phases of development that included the implementation of advanced error-correction algorithms and the operation at infrared wavelength nm in order to enhance the performance of the system using standard, fast and efficient products of the telecommunication industry [ 1415 ].
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The experimental implementation of a partial intercept-and-resend eavesdropping attack on such a system confirmed the entanglement-breaking bound for the coherent-state CVQKD protocol through crhptographie direct measurement of the system’s excess noise [ 16 ]. We have proposed and implemented a protocol [ 7 ] where the key information is encoded by Alice in two orthogonal quadratures X and P or equivalently the amplitude and phase coura a train of coherent states that are modulated according to a centred bi-Gaussian distribution.
Alice and Bob then extract a secret common binary key from their data, by performing ctyptographie procedures for channel characterization, error correction and privacy amplification. This system is therefore most suitable for use in metropolitan-size secure networks that require high communication rates .