The leaves, stem bark and root bark of Ekebergia senegalensis, which has some traditional medicinal applications were investigated. Phytochemical analysis. PDF | The study on the analgesic activities of aqueous extract of Ekebergia senegalensis A. Juss stem bark in albino rats was carried out. Rats were. Ekebergia senegalensis. (),. Ekebergia rueppelliana. (Fresen.) A. Rich. (),. Ekebergia mildbraedii. Harms (). Vernacular names. Cape ash.

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Email this to a friend Print Share on facebook Tweet this. Showing 0 of 0 comments. Ekebergia capensis 1, flowering twig; 2, part of fruiting twig. Redrawn and adapted by Iskak Syamsudin. Ekebergia capensis tree habit. Ekebergia capensis young tree habit. Ekebergia capensis slash and bark. Ekebergia capensis leaves and fruits. Ekebergia capensis ripe fruits and seeds. Ekebergia capensis wood in transverse section. Ekebergia capensis wood in tangential section. Ekebergia capensis wood in radial section.

Ekebergia capensis Ekebergia capensis tree of Fernkloof Ekebergia capensis Ekebergia capensis A. Ekebergia capensis Ekebergia capensis x – 6k – jpg www. Ekebergia capensis Ekebergia capensis x – 7k – jpg www. Ekebergia capensis Bonsai – Ekebergia capensis Cape Ekebergia capensis Ekebergia capensis x – 8k – jpg www.

Ekebergia capensis Ekebergia capensis L x – 68k – jpg www. Ekebergia capensis Ekebergia capensis x – 16k – jpg www. Ekebergia capensis Aluka – Ekebergia capensis Sparrm. Ekebergia capensis Photograph courtesy of Studio Atrium Ekebergia capensis is widespread, from Senegal east to Eritrea and Ethiopia, and south to Botswana, eastern South Africa and Swaziland.

The wood is locally valued for furniture, and it is also used for light construction, poles and tool handles. It is suitable for light flooring, joinery, interior trim, ship building, vehicle bodies, sporting goods, toys, novelties, vats, food containers, boxes, crates, matches, turnery, veneer and plywood.

It is also used as firewood and for charcoal production. The bark, roots and leaves are widely used in traditional medicine. Bark decoctions, infusions and macerations are taken to treat gastritis, heartburn, dysentery, epilepsy, gonorrhoea and as vermifuge, and are applied externally to ulcers, abscesses, boils, scabies, acne, pimples and itching skin.

A powder prepared with the bark is sniffed against headache, colds and sinusitis. A root decoction is taken as a diuretic and to treat kidney problems, dysentery, heartburn, headache and respiratory complaints. The root is chewed as an expectorant. Charred pulverized roots are sniffed for treatment of headache and blocked nose.

Leaf macerations are used internally or externally to treat headache, fever, cough and skin complaints, and they are taken as a vermifuge.

The wood is used by Zulu people to facilitate childbirth. Decoctions of various parts of Ekebergia capensis are used traditionally in central Ethiopia as an anthelmintic for the treatment of livestock. Bark and roots have been used as ordeal poisons. In southern Africa the bark has been used for tanning. The fruit is edible but usually not much liked. The foliage is browsed by livestock in the dry season. Ekebergia capensis is planted as an ornamental, particularly as a roadside tree, but also as a garden tree for its attractively coloured fruits and for shade.


It is occasionally planted for soil conservation, as a windbreak and as a shade tree in coffee and banana plantations. The flowers are a source of nectar and pollen for honey bees. The wood is only used locally and has no importance on the international market. The bark and roots are commonly sold on local markets for medicinal purposes. The heartwood is whitish to pale pink when freshly cut, darkening to greyish white, pale pinkish brown or pale brown upon drying. It is indistinctly demarcated from the sapwood.

The grain is straight, texture moderately fine to ekdbergia. Some figure may be present on backsawn surfaces. It air dries rapidly and without serious degrade. Boards up to 25 mm thick can be air dried in less than one month and thin boards can be kiln dried in 6 days. The wood is moderately stable in service. The wood is easy to saw and work with both hand and machine tools.

Ekebergia capensis (PROTA) – PlantUse English

It planes to a smooth surface and takes a fair polish. It has good nailing properties, but may split occasionally. Boring and mortising do not cause problems. The wood has good veneering and moulding properties.

It is not durable and is susceptible to blue stain and insect attacks. The heartwood is moderately permeable for preservatives, the sapwood permeable. The growth of both drug-resistant and drug-sensitive strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was inhibited by bark extracts of Ekebergia capensis at a concentration of 0. In-vivo tests in mice showed significant suppression of chloroquine-tolerant Plasmodium berghei by Ekebergia capensis bark and leaf extracts. Several antiplasmodial triterpenoids have been isolated from the bark.

Methanol extracts of the bark showed pronounced antibacterial activity against several bacteria. The bark contains the toxic compound 8-methoxy 4-methyl coumarin. Tests on guinea-pig uterine smooth muscle showed uterotonic activity of wood extracts of Ekebergia capensis ; the active compounds isolated were identified as oleanonic acid and 3-epioleanolic acid.

Leaf extracts demonstrated antioxidant activity. Seed extracts showed significant in-vitro anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortussupporting the traditional use as an anthelmintic for livestock in Ethiopia. It has been reported that the bark contains about 7. Limonoids, terpenoids, flavonoids, steroids and phenolic compounds have been isolated from Ekebergia capensis. The seeds contain the limonoid ekebergin as main constituent. Evergreen or sometimes semideciduous, dioecious, small to medium-sized tree up to 30 m tall; bole straight or sometimes crooked, branchless for up to 12 m, up to cm in diameter, fluted or with short buttresses at base; bark surface smooth but in older trees often becoming rough and scaly, pale grey to dark grey or brownish grey, inner bark reddish, sometimes with white streaks; crown large and spreading or dense and rounded; twigs short-hairy, glabrescent, with conspicuous whitish lenticels, branchlets marked by circular leaf-scars.


Leaves arranged spirally, clustered in lax groups at ends of branches, imparipinnately compound with 3—7 —8 pairs of leaflets; stipules absent; petiole 2. Inflorescence an axillary panicle up to 20 cm long, densely short-hairy. Flowers unisexual, male and female flowers very similar in appearance, regular, 4— 5-merous, greenish white or pinkish white, fragrant; pedicel c.

Fruit a globose to ellipsoid drupe 1—2 —3 cm long, pink to red-brown or deep red when ripe, with 2—4 stones, each stone usually containing 1 seed. Seeds with thin seed coat. Seedling with epigeal germination; hypocotyl 3—5 cm long, epicotyl 6—8 cm long; cotyledons fleshy, c. Ekebergia comprises 3 species and is confined to the African mainland. It differs from Ekebergia capensis in its thicker twigs with inconspicuous lenticels and in its leaflets with rounded to notched apex.

The wood is occasionally used, e. The roots are used in traditional medicine to treat painful menstruation, abdominal pain, loss of appetite and as an aphrodisiac.

The powdered bark is taken against impotence, and boiled leaves are applied to the chest to treat pneumonia. The fruits are edible. Hofmeyr is a small tree up to senegalwnsis —10 m tall, endemic to eastern South Africa.

It is characterized by its winged leaf rachis.

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Wood-anatomical description IAWA hardwood codes: Under favourable conditions, trees may flower abundantly every year. In the savanna zone of West Africa Ekebergia capensis flowers in the dry season. The flowers are pollinated by insects such as bees and ants. Ekebergia capensis usually has male and female flowers on separate trees dioeciousbut trees with functionally male and female flowers have been recorded. Fallen fruits are eaten by mammals such as antelopes, wild pigs, baboons and vervet monkeys.

Investigations of the roots of Ekebergia capensis revealed arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization. In West Africa Ekebergia capensis occurs in dry forest and riverine forest on well-drained soils. In East and southern Africa it is found in montane and riverine forest at — m altitude, but also in savanna woodland and wooded grassland, and then often on termite mounds.

It prefers deep sandy soils. The seed weight is — g. Fresh seeds start germinating after 4—9 weeks. Soaking the seeds in water for one day and subsequent scrubbing with a brush promotes germination. The seeds can be sown in trays filled with river sand or normal potting soil and should be covered with only a thin layer of soil up to 5 mm. Seeds lose their viability rapidly and storage for long periods is difficult.