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The telegram was intercepted and decoded by British intelligence. Revelation of the contents enraged Americans, especially after German Foreign Secretary Arthur Zimmermann publicly admitted the telegram was genuine on March 3, and helped generate support for the United States declaration of war on Germany in April.
The message was sent to the German ambassador to Mexico, Heinrich von Eckardt. Zimmermann sent the telegram in anticipation of the resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare by Germany on 1 February, an act the German government presumed would almost certainly lead to war with the United States.
The telegram instructed Ambassador Eckardt that if the United States appeared certain to enter the war, he was to approach the Mexican Government with a proposal for military zimmefman with funding from Germany. We intend to begin on the first of February unrestricted submarine warfare. We shall endeavor in teelegrama of this to keep the United States of America neutral.
In the event of this not succeeding, we make Mexico a proposal of alliance on the following basis: Zimmwrman settlement in detail is left to you. You will inform the President of the above most secretly as soon as the te,egrama of war with the United States of America is certain and add the suggestion that he should, on his own initiative, invite Japan to immediate adherence and at the same time mediate between Japan and ourselves.
Please call the President’s attention to the fact that the ruthless employment of our submarines now offers the prospect of compelling England in a few months to make peace. Germany had zimmerrman sought to incite a war between Mexico and the United States, which would have tied down American forces and slowed the export zimmer,an American arms to the Allied Powers.
The failure of United States troops to capture Pancho Villa in and the movement of President Carranza in favor of Germany emboldened the Zimerman to send the Zimmermann note. The German provocations were partially successful. Woodrow Wilson ordered the military invasion of Veracruz in in the context of the Ypiranga Incident and against the advice of the British government. The Zimmermann Telegram was part of an effort carried out by the Germans to postpone the transportation of supplies and other war materials from the United States to the Allied Powers that were at war with Germany.
The Germans were encouraged by their successes on the Eastern Front into believing that they would be able to divert large numbers of troops to the Western Front in telegramw of their goals.
Mexican President Venustiano Carranza assigned a military commission to assess the feasibility of the Mexican takeover of their former territories contemplated by Germany. The Carranza government was recognized de jure by the United States on 31 August as a direct consequence of the Zimmermann telegram, since recognition was necessary to ensure Mexican neutrality in World War I. The telegram was sent to the German embassy in the United States for re-transmission to Eckardt in Mexico.
It has traditionally been claimed that the telegram was sent over three routes: But it has been established that only one method was used. The message was delivered to the United States Embassy in Berlin and then transmitted tdlegrama diplomatic cable first to Copenhagen and then to London for onward transmission over transatlantic cable to Washington.
Direct telegraph transmission of the telegram was not possible because the British had cut the German international cables at the outbreak of war. However, the United States allowed limited use of its diplomatic cables with Germany to communicate with its ambassador in Washington. The facility was supposed to be used for cables connected with President Woodrow Wilson’s peace zimmermna.
However, neither cable ran directly to the United States.
Both cables passed through a relay station at Porthcurnonear Land’s Endthe westernmost tip of Felegrama. Here the signals were boosted for the long trans-oceanic jump by radio. All traffic through the Porthcurno relay was copied to British intelligence, in particular to the codebreakers and analysts in Room 40 at the Admiralty.
After their telegraph cables had been cut, the German Foreign Office appealed to the United States for use of their cable for diplomatic messages. President Wilson agreed to this, in the belief that such cooperation would sustain continued good relations with Germany, and that more efficient German-American diplomacy could assist Wilson’s goal of a negotiated end to the war.
El telegrama a México que definió la suerte de la Primera Guerra Mundial
The Germans handed in messages to the United States embassy in Berlin, which were relayed to the embassy in Denmark and then to the United States by American telegraph operators.
However, the United States placed conditions on German usage, most notably that all messages had to be in clear i.
The Germans assumed that the United States cable was secure and used it extensively.
However, this relegrama German diplomats in a precarious situation: They were reliant on the United States to transmit Zimmermann’s note to its final destination, but the message’s unencrypted contents would be deeply alarming to the Americans.
The Germans persuaded U. Gerard to accept it in coded form, and it was transmitted on 16 January In Room 40, Nigel de Grey had partially deciphered the telegram by the next day. Disclosure of the Telegram would sway public opinion in the United States against Germany, provided the Americans could be convinced it was genuine.
But Room 40 chief William Reginald Hall was reluctant to let it out, because the disclosure would expose the German codes broken in Room 40 and British eavesdropping on the United States cable. Hall waited three weeks. During this period, Grey and cryptographer William Montgomery completed the decryption. On 1 February Germany announced resumption of “unrestricted” submarine warfare, an act which led the United States to break off diplomatic relations with Germany on 3 February.
Hall passed the telegram to the Foreign Office on 5 February, but still warned against releasing it. Meanwhile, the British discussed possible cover stories: Furthermore, the British needed to find a way to convince the Americans the message was not a forgery. For the first story, the British obtained the ciphertext of the telegram from the Mexican commercial telegraph office. The British knew that the German Embassy in Washington would relay the message zimmermxn commercial telegraph, so the Mexican telegraph office would have the ciphertext.
H,” a British agent in Mexico, bribed an employee of the commercial telegraph company for a copy of the message. H,” or teleframa least involved with the interception, in his autobiography. Moreover, the retransmission was enciphered using the older cipherso by mid-February the British had not teletrama the complete text, but also the ability to release the telegram without revealing the extent to which the latest German codes had been broken.
At worst, the Germans might have realized that the code had been compromised, but weighed against the possibility of United States entry into the war, that was a risk worth taking. Finally, since copies of the zimmermaj would also have been zimjerman in the records of the American commercial telegraph company, the British had the zimmetman to prove the authenticity of the message to the United States government. As a cover story, the British could publicly claim that their agents had stolen the telegram’s deciphered text in Mexico.
Privately, the British needed to give the Americans the cipher so that the United States government could verify the authenticity of the message independently with their own commercial telegraphic records; however the Americans agreed to back the official cover story.
The German Foreign Office refused to consider a twlegrama code break, and instead sent Ambassador Eckardt on a witch-hunt for a traitor in the tekegrama in Mexico.
Eckardt indignantly rejected these accusations, and zimmfrman Foreign Office eventually declared zimmreman embassy exonerated. Bell was at first incredulous and thought it to be a forgery. Once Bell was convinced the message was genuine, he became enraged. Page then reported zimmeramn story to President Woodrow Wilsonincluding details to be verified from telegraph company files in the United States. Wilson released the text to the media on 28 February Popular sentiment in the United States at that time was anti-Mexican as well as anti-Germanwhile in Mexico there was considerable anti-American sentiment.
Pershing had long been chasing the revolutionary Pancho Villa and carried out several cross-border raids. News of the telegram further inflamed tensions between the United States and Mexico. However, there was also a notable anti-British sentiment in the United States, particularly among German- and Irish-Americans. Many Americans wished to zimmmerman the conflict in Europe. Since the public had been told untruthfully that the telegram had been stolen in a deciphered form in Mexico, the message was widely believed at first to be an elaborate forgery perpetrated by British intelligence.
This belief, which was not restricted to pacifist and pro-German lobbies, was promoted by German and Mexican diplomats and by some American newspapers, especially the Hearst zimmermna empire.
Zimmermann Telegram – Wikipedia
This presented the Wilson administration with a dilemma. With the evidence the United States had been provided confidentially by the British, Wilson realized the message was genuine—but he could not make the evidence public without compromising the British codebreaking operation.
Any doubts as to the authenticity of the telegram were removed by Arthur Zimmermann himself. First at a press conference on 3 Marchhe told an American journalist, “I cannot deny it. On zimmerma FebruaryGermany began unrestricted submarine warfare against all ships in the Atlantic bearing the American flag, both passenger and merchant ships. Two ships were sunk in February, and most American shipping companies held their ships in port. Besides the highly provocative war proposal to Mexico, the telegram also mentioned “ruthless employment of our submarines”.
Telegrama Zimmermann – Wikisource
Public opinion demanded action. Wilson had previously refused to assign US Navy crews and guns to the merchant ships. However, once the Zimmermann note was public, Wilson called for arming the merchant ships, but anti-war elements in the United States Senate blocked his proposal. On 6 AprilCongress voted to declare war on Germany ; Wilson had asked Congress for “a war to end all wars ” that would “make the world safe for democracy”. Woodrow Wilson considered another military invasion of Veracruz and Tampico in —,   so as to take control of felegrama Tehuantepec Isthmus and Tampico oil fields,   but this time the relatively new Mexican President Venustiano Carranza threatened to destroy the oil fields in case the Marines landed there.
The Japanese government later released a statement that Japan was not interested in changing sides and attacking America. In Octoberit was reported that an original typescript of the deciphered Zimmermann Telegram had recently been discovered by an unnamed historian who was researching and preparing an official history of the United Kingdom’s Government Communications Headquarters GCHQ.
The document is believed to be the actual telegram shown to the American ambassador in London in Marked in Admiral Hall’s handwriting at the top of the gelegrama are the words: However, after the discovery of this document, the GCHQ official historian said: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. United States involvement in the Mexican Revolution.
This section does not cite telegfama sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. For The President’s Eyes Only. Retrieved 17 January The Secret War in Mexico: Europe, the United States, and the Mexican Revolution.
Mediation at Niagara Falls, Mexico and the United States, Volume 3.