A grammar of the Hurrian language. Front Cover. Frederic William Bush. Brandeis University., – Hurrian language – pages. Dennis R. M. Campbell , Mood and Modality in Hurrian, , Frederic W. Bush , A Grammar of the Hurrian Language, , , grammar · hh. Hurrian language, extinct language spoken from the last centuries of the 3rd millennium bce until at least the latter years of the Hittite empire (c. –c.

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Between the suffix of the dependent noun and the case ending comes the article, which agrees with hhrrian referent in number, for example, with an adjective:. Any text you add gram,ar be original, not copied from other sources.

The variant forms -me-ma and -lle of the third person absolutive pronouns only before certain conjunctions, namely ai wheninna wheninuunu whopanu thoughand the relative pronouns iya and iye. Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed. The anaphoric marker 7 is garmmar identical to the article and anchors the Suffixaufnahme suffixes 8 and 9.

It is generally believed that the speakers of Hurrian originally came from the Armenian mountains and spread over southeast Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia at the beginning of the 2nd millennium bce. The only language close to Hurrian is Urartian, once spoken in what is now the extreme east of Turkey.

However, this form is only attested in Mitanni and only in the third person. The language was widely spoken in what is now northern Syria, northern Iraq, and southeast Turkey, and by the end of the sixteenth century BC, the kings of Mittani had united most Hurrian cities under their control.

One of these, the equative casehas a different form in both of the main dialects. No Hurrian texts are attested from the first millennium BC unless considering Urartian a late Hurrian dialectbut scattered loanwords persist in Assyrian, such as the goddess Savuska mentioned by Sargon II.


The third possibility is for both these markers to occur see example 16 below. However, in the Mari and Hattusha dialects, the suffix of transitivity -o does not merge with other endings. Like many languages in the region, Hurrian is an ergative language, which means that the same case is used for the subject of an intransitive verb as for the object of a transitive one; this case is called the absolutive. To express a possibility, the potential form must be used.

Glottolog – Hurrian

Keep Exploring Britannica Education. Another Hurrian dialect is likely represented in several texts from Ugarit, but they are so poorly preserved that little can be said about them, save that spelling patterns used elsewhere to represent Hurrian phonemes are virtually ignored in them. There is no difference between the form for transitive and intransitive verbs, there being agreement with the subject of the sentence.

My library Help Advanced Book Hurrina. Hurrian languageextinct language spoken from the last centuries of the 3rd millennium bce until at least the latter years of the Hittite empire c. Wishes and commands hjrrian formed with an optative system, whose principal characteristic is the element -iwhich is attached directly to the verb stem.

For for the possible superstrate language, see Mitanni-Aryan. The noun, which is represented by hurriwn relative clause, can take any case, but within the relative clause can only have the function of the absolutive, hyrrian. The following table gives an overview of the numeral system:. Hurrian uses both enclitic and independent personal pronouns.

The temporal adverbs are henni nowkuru again and unto then. Tense hurian are unchanged in the optative. Hurrian has 13 cases in its system of declension. The Hurrian language was written during a year period.

Hurrian language

All adpositions can themselves generally be in the allative, rarely in the dative or in the “e-case”. Hurrian was the language of the Mitanni kingdom in northern Mesopotamia and was likely spoken at least initially in Hurrian settlements in modern-day Syria. Nonetheless, it is clear that these represent dialects of one language. hugrian


It is also only found in the third person, and only with transitive verbs. Starostin see similarities between Hurrian and the Northeast Caucasian languagesand thus place it in the Alarodian family. The earliest Hurrian text fragments consist of lists of names and places from hurian end of the third millennium BC.

Contact our editors with your feedback. After these endings come the vowel of transitivity. The non-Mitanni letter varieties, while not entirely homogeneous, are commonly subsumed under the designation Old Hurrian.

The table below outlines the possible forms:. The article is unmarked in the absolutive singular — e. Historical background of ancient Anatolia In history of Mesopotamia: Retrieved from ” https: Hurrian clitics stand for unique words, but are attached to other words as though they were suffixes.

The suffixes of the first person, both plural and singular, and the second person plural suffix merge with the preceding suffixes -i and -wa. The following table gives the tense, hurrkan and negation markers:.

The Mitanni introduced some linguistic terms of Indo-Aryan origin, dealing for example with horse training, and gods from the Vedic Indian pantheon, but the language remained Hurrian. In Woodard, Roger D. Within noun phrasesthe noun regularly comes at the end. Some scholars, such as I. Only a few sentence-initial particles are attested. From inside the book. Languages portal Ancient Near East portal.

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